34Key accounting policies and valuation methods

34.1 Basis of preparation

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) using the historical cost convention except for:

  • financial assets at fair value through profit or loss and financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income; and
  • net position from defined benefit plans, where plan assets are measured at fair value and the plan liabilities are measured at the present value of the defined benefit obligations (see note 34.18 a).

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements and have been applied consistently by all subsidiaries.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise its judgment in the process of applying the group’s accounting policies. The areas involving a higher degree of judgment or complexity or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the consolidated financial statements are disclosed in note 6


Due to rounding, numbers presented throughout the consolidated financial statements may not add up precisely to the totals provided. All ratios, percentages and variances are calculated using the underlying amount rather than the presented rounded amount.


Within tables, blank fields generally indicate that the field is not applicable or not meaningful, or that information is not available as of the relevant date or for the relevant period. Dashes (–) generally indicate that the respective figure is zero, while a zero (0.0) indicates that the relevant figure has been rounded to zero.

34.2 Change in accounting policies

a) Standards, amendments and interpretations which were effective for 2023

Starting from January 1, 2023, the group applied changes in standards, amendments and interpretations that became effective January 1, 2023. None of these changes had a material effect on the financial statements of the group. 

The group has adopted the amendments to IAS 12 International Tax Reform – Pillar Two Model Rules upon their release in May 2023. The amendments are effective immediately and provide a mandatory temporary exception from deferred tax accounting for the top-up tax and introduce new disclosures on the Pillar Two impact. The mandatory exception from deferred tax accounting applies retrospectively. No new tax legislation implementing top-up tax was enacted or substantively enacted on December 31, 2022, in any of the jurisdiction in which the group is operating and no related deferred tax assets or liabilities were recognized at that date. The retrospective application has no impact on the group's financial statements. 

b) Standards, amendments and interpretations issued but not yet effective, which the group decided not to adopt early in 2023

The following amended standards will become effective from January 1, 2024. The group does not expect these to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements: 

  • Amendments to IAS 1 – Classification of liabilities as current or non-current and non-current liabilities with covenants. The amendments provide clarification when an entity should classify liabilities as current or non-current and introduce new disclosure requirements for non-current liabilities that are subject to future covenants. 
  • Amendments to IFRS 16 Leases – Lease liability in a sale and leaseback. The amendments provide further clarification how the lease liability should be measured by a seller-lessee.  
  • Amendments to IAS 7 and IFRS 7 – Disclosure of supplier finance arrangements. The amendments introduce new disclosure requirements for supplier finance arrangements that should allow users to assess the impact of such agreements on an entity's liabilities, cash flows and liquidity risk. 

The following amended standards will become effective from January 1, 2025. The group is in the process of assessing the below amendments and does currently not expect these to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements:

  • Amendments to IAS 21 – Lack of exchangeability

34.3 Consolidation

a) Business combinations

The group accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method when control is transferred to the group. The consideration transferred in the acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets given, the liabilities incurred to the former owner of the acquiree and the equity interest issued by the group. Any goodwill arising is tested annually for impairment. Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognized in the income statement immediately. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred, except if related to the issue of debt or equity securities. Identifiable assets acquired, and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination, are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date.

Any contingent consideration payable is measured at fair value at the acquisition date. If the contingent consideration is classified as equity, then it is not remeasured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognized in the income statement.

If share-based payment awards (replacement awards) are required to be exchanged for awards held by the acquiree’s employees (acquiree’s awards), then all or a portion of the amount of the acquirer’s replacement awards is included in measuring the consideration transferred in the business combination. The determination is based on the difference between the market-based measure of the replacement awards compared with the market-based measure of the acquiree’s awards and the extent to which the replacement awards relate to precombination service.

b) Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are all entities controlled by the group. The group controls an entity when it is exposed to, or has the rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date on which control commences until the date on which control ceases.

According to the full consolidation method, all assets and liabilities and income and expenses of the subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements. The share of non-controlling interests in the net assets and results is presented separately as non-controlling interests in the consolidated balance sheet and income statement, respectively.

c) Non-controlling interests

The group recognizes any non-controlling interest in the acquiree on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the recognized amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions.

When the group loses control over a subsidiary, it derecognizes the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary, and any related non-controlling interest and other components of equity. Any resulting gain or loss is recognized in the income statement. Any interest retained in the former subsidiary is measured at fair value when control is lost.

d) Associates and joint ventures

Associates are those entities in which the group has significant influence, but no control, over the financial and operating policies. Significant influence is presumed to exist when the group holds, directly or indirectly, between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. Joint ventures are those entities over whose ­activities the group has joint control, established by contractual agreement and requiring unanimous consent for strategic, financial and operating decisions. Associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method and are initially recognized at cost.

e) Transactions eliminated on consolidation

All material intercompany transactions and balances and any unrealized gains arising from intercompany transactions are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Unrealized losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealized gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

34.4 Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance (e.g., operating income) of the operating segments, has been identified as chief operating decision maker.

34.5 Foreign currency translation

a) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of subsidiaries are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the functional currency). The consolidated financial statements are presented in Swiss francs (CHF).

The following table shows the major currency exchange rates for the reporting periods 2023 and 2022:








Average rate


Year-end rate


Average rate


Year-end rate




























CNY 100









INR 100









b) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in the income statement.

c) Subsidiaries

The results and balance sheet positions of subsidiaries that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency of the group are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

  • Assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet.
  • Income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates.

Translation differences resulting from consolidation are taken to other comprehensive income. In the event of a sale or liquidation of foreign subsidiaries, exchange differences that were recorded in other comprehensive income are recognized in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale or liquidation.

If a loan is made to a group company, and the loan in substance forms part of the group’s investment in the group company, translation differences arising from the loan are recognized directly in other comprehensive income as foreign currency translation differences. When the group company is sold or partially disposed of, and control no longer exists, gains and losses accumulated in equity are reclassified to the income statement as part of the gain or loss on disposal.

34.6 Intangible assets

Intangible assets with finite useful life are ­amortized in line with the expected useful life, usually on a straight-line basis. The period of useful life is to be assessed according to business rather than legal criteria. This assessment is made at least once a year. An impairment might be required in the event of sudden or unforeseen value changes.

a) Goodwill

Goodwill represents the difference between the consideration transferred and the fair value of the group’s share in the identifiable net asset value of the acquired business at the time of acquisition. Any goodwill arising as a result of a business combination is included within intangible assets.

Goodwill is subject to an annual impairment test and valued at its original acquisition cost less accumulated impairment losses. In cases where circumstances indicate a potential impairment, impairment tests are conducted more frequently. Profits and losses arising from the sale of a business include the book value of the goodwill assigned to the business being sold.

For impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to those cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose. Goodwill originating from the acquisition of an associate or joint venture is included in the book value of the investment. 

b) Trademarks and licenses

Trademarks, licenses and similar rights acquired from third parties are stated at acquisition cost. Such assets are amortized over their expected useful life, generally not exceeding 10 years.

c) Computer software

Acquired computer software licenses in control of the group are capitalized on the basis of the cost incurred to acquire the specific software and bring to use. These costs are amortized over their estimated useful lives (three to max. five years).

d) Customer relationships

As part of a business combination, acquired customer rights are recorded at fair value (cost at the time of acquisition). These costs are amortized over their estimated useful lives, generally not exceeding 15 years.

34.7 Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is stated at acquisition cost less depreciation and impairments. Acquisition cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the item. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced item is derec­ognized. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to the income statement during the financial ­period in which they are incurred.

Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life. Land is stated at cost and is not depreciated.

The useful lives are as follows:
Buildings: 20–50 years
Machinery: 5–15 years
Technical equipment: 5– 10 years
Other non-current assets: max. 5 years

34.8 Impairment of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

Assets with a finite useful life are only tested for impairment if relevant events or changes in circumstances indicate that the book value is no longer recoverable. An impairment loss is recorded equal to the excess of the carrying value over the recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the fair value of the asset less disposal costs and its value in use. The value in use is based on the estimated cash flow over a five-year period and the extrapolated projections for subsequent years. The results are discounted using an appropriate pretax, long-term interest rate. For the purposes of the impairment test, assets are grouped together at the lowest level for which separate cash flows can be identified (cash-generating units).

34.9 Lease assets and lease liabilities

The group recognizes lease assets and lease liabilities for most leases (these leases are on-balance-sheet). However, the group has elected not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for leases of low-value assets and short-term leases. The group recognizes the lease payments associated with these leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

The group presents lease assets and lease liabilities as separate line items on the balance sheet.

The group recognizes lease assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date. The lease asset is initially measured at cost and subsequently at cost less any accumulated depreciation and impairment losses and adjusted for certain remeasurements. The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid on commencement date, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, the group’s incremental borrowing rate. Generally, the group uses currency and duration specific incremental borrowing rates for the discounting. 

The lease liability is subsequently increased by the interest cost on the lease liability and decreased by lease payments made. It is remeasured when there is a change in future lease payments arising from a change in an index rate, a change in the estimate of the amount expected to be payable under a residual value guarantee, changes in the assessment of whether a purchase or extension option is reasonably certain to be exercised, or a termination option is reasonably certain not to be exercised.

34.10 Financial assets

Financial assets are classified into the following three categories:

  • Financial assets measured at amortized cost
  • Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
  • Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)

Debt instruments

Financial assets measured at amortized cost

Initially, financial assets are recognized at fair value. Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured subsequently at amortized cost. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition is recognized directly in the income statement and presented in other financial income / (expenses), net together with foreign exchange gains and losses. Impairment losses are presented as separate line items in the income statement.

Equity instruments

The group measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the group is holding equity instruments not for trading and group’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income (OCI), there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to the income statement following the derecognition of the investment. Dividends from such investments continue to be recognized in the income statement as other income when the group’s right to receive payments is established. A gain or loss on an equity investment that is subsequently measured at FVTPL is recognized in the income statement and presented within other operating income and expenses or other financial income and expenses, depending on the nature of the investment, in the period in which it arises.

34.11 Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities

The group uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts and other forward contracts, to hedge its risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currencies arising from operational and financing activities. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as assets when the fair value is positive and as liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in fair value on the derivatives during the year that do not qualify for hedge accounting are taken directly into profit or loss.

The group applies hedge accounting to secure the foreign currency risks of future cash flows that have a high probability of occurrence. These hedges are classified as “cash flow hedgesˮ, whereas the hedge instrument is recorded on the balance sheet at fair value and the effective portions are booked against “Other comprehensive ­incomeˮ in the column “Cash flow hedge reserveˮ. If the hedge relates to a non-financial transaction that will subsequently be recorded on the balance sheet, the adjustments accumulated under “Other comprehensive incomeˮ at that time will be included in the initial book value of the asset or liability. In all other cases, the cumulative changes of fair value of the hedging instrument that have been recorded in other comprehensive income are included as a charge or credit to income when the forecasted trans­action is recognized or when hedge accounting is discontinued as the criteria are no longer met. In general, the fair value of financial instruments traded in active markets is based on quoted market prices at the balance sheet date.

At the inception of the transaction, the group documents the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items and its risk management objectives and strategy for undertaking various hedging transactions. The group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items.

34.12 Inventories

Raw materials, supplies and consumables are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Finished products and work in progress are stated at the lower of production cost or net realizable value. Production cost includes the costs of materials, direct and indirect manufacturing costs, and contract-related costs of construction. Inventories are valued by reference to weighted average costs. Provisions are made for slow-moving and excess inventories and are recognized in the income statement in Costs of goods sold. 

34.13 Trade receivables

Trade and other accounts receivable are recognized initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost, less allowances for doubtful trade accounts receivable.

The allowance for doubtful trade accounts receivable is based on expected credit losses. The group applies the simplified approach, measuring the loss amount based on lifetime expected credit losses. These are based on historical observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and are adjusted for forward-looking information such as development of gross domestic product (GDP) and oil price development.

34.14 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise bills, postal giros and bank accounts, together with other short-term highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition. Bank overdrafts are reported within borrowings in the current liabilities.

34.15 Trade payables

Trade payables and other payables are stated at face value. The respective value corresponds approx­imately to the amortized cost.

34.16 Borrowings

Financial debt is stated at fair value when initially recognized, after recognition of transaction costs. In subsequent periods, it is valued at amortized cost. Any difference between the amount borrowed (after deduction of transaction costs) and the repayment amount is reported in the income statement over the duration of the loan using the effective interest method. Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the group has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the balance sheet date.

34.17 Current and deferred income taxes

The current income tax charge comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. It is calculated on the basis of the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date in the countries where the group’s subsidiaries operate and generate taxable income. The management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.

The liability method is used to provide deferred taxes on all temporary differences between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carry­ing amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred taxes are valued by applying tax rates (and regulations) substantially enacted on the balance sheet date or any that have essentially been legally approved and are expected to apply at the time when the deferred tax asset is realized or the deferred tax liability is settled.

Income tax is recognized in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity or other comprehensive income, in which case it is recognized directly in equity or other comprehensive income.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for unused tax losses and deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that a taxable profit will be available against which they can be used. Deferred tax liabilities arising as a result of temporary differences relating to investments in subsidiaries, asso­ciates and joint venture are applied, unless the group can control when temporary differences are reversed and it is unlikely that they will be reversed in the foreseeable future.

34.18 Employee benefits

a) Defined benefit plans

The group’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan. The calculation of defined benefit assets / obligations is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. The net obligation is estimated based on the discounted future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, deducting the fair value of any plan assets. The discount rate is determined with reference to the interest rates on high-quality corporate bonds denominated in the currency of the expected cash flows and aligned with the estimated term.

When the calculation results in a potential asset for the group, the recognized asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. To calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any applicable minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest income on plan assets), and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognized immediately in other comprehensive income. The group determines the net interest expense / (income) on the net defined benefit liability / (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then net defined benefit liability / (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability/ (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expenses and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognized in the income statement.

When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognized immediately in the income statement. The group recognizes gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.

b) Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are defined as pure savings plans, under which the employer makes certain contributions into a separate legal entity (fund) and does not have a legal or an extendible (constructive) liability to contribute any additional amounts in the event this entity does not have enough funds to pay out benefits. A “constructiveˮ commitment exists when it can be assumed that the employer will voluntarily make additional contributions in order not to endanger the relationship with its employees. Company contributions to such plans are considered in the income statement as personnel expenses.

c) Other employee benefits

Some subsidiaries provide other employee benefits such as jubilee gifts to their employees. Jubilee gifts are other long-term benefits. For example, in Switzerland, the group makes provisions for jubilee benefits based on a Swiss local directive. The provisions are reported in the category “Other employee benefitsˮ.

Short-term benefits are payable within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related employee service. In the case of liabilities of a long-term nature, the discounting effects and employee turnover are to be taken into consideration.

Obligations to employees arising from restructuring measures are included under the category “Restruc­turing provisionsˮ.

34.19 Share-based compensation

The group operates two equity-settled share-based payment plans. A performance share plan (PSP) covers the members of the Executive Committee and the members of the Sulzer Management Group. A restricted share plan (RSP) covers the members of the Board of Directors.

a) Performance share plan (PSP)

The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of the performance share units (PSU) is recognized as a personnel expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the share units granted, excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions (e.g., target profit levels). At each balance sheet date, the group reassesses its estimates of the number of share units that are expected to vest. It recognizes the impact of the reassessment of original estimates, if any, in the income statement, and a corresponding adjustment to equity. The fair value of PSUs granted is measured by external valuation specialists based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

The group accrues for the expected cost of social charges in connection with the allotment of shares under the PSP. The dilution effect of the share-based awards is considered when calculating diluted earnings per share.

b) Restricted share plan (RSP)

The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of the share units is recognized as a personnel expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The total amount expensed is recognized over the vesting period, which is the period over which the specified service conditions are expected to be met.

The fair value of the restricted share units (RSU) granted for services rendered is measured at the Sulzer closing share price at grant date, and discounted over the vesting period using a discount rate that is based on the yield of Swiss government bonds with maturities matching the duration of the vesting period. Participants are not entitled to dividends declared during the vesting period. The grant date fair value of the RSUs is consequently reduced by the present value of dividends expected to be paid during the vesting period.

The group accrues for the expected cost of social charges in connection with the allotment of shares under the RSP. The dilutive effect of the share-based awards is considered when calculating diluted earnings per share.

34.20 Provisions

Provisions are recognized when the group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Restructuring provisions comprise lease termination penalties and employee termination payments. Provisions are not recognized for future operating losses. Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required is determined by considering the class of obligation as a whole. A provision is recognized even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to a single item included in the class of obligations may be small.

Provisions are measured at the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation using a pretax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the obligation. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as interest expense.

34.21 Sales

Sales comprises the fair value of the consideration received or receivable for the sale of goods and rendering of services in the ordinary course of the group’s activities. This includes standard products (off the rack) and configured and engineered or tailor-made products. Sales are shown net of value-added tax, returns, rebates and discounts and after eliminating sales within the group.

The core principle is that sales are recognized at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the group expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer.

Sales are recognized when (or as) the group satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service (i.e., an asset) to a customer. An asset is transferred when (or as) the customer obtains control of that asset.

A customer obtains control of a good or service if it has the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, that good or service (e.g., use, consume, sale, hold). A customer could have the future right to direct the use of the asset and obtain substantially all of the benefits from it (i.e., upon making a prepayment for a specified product).

There are two methods to recognize sales:

  • Over time method (OT): sales, costs and profit margin recognition in line with the progress of the project
  • Point in time method (PIT): sales recognition when the performance obligation is satisfied at a certain point in time

The group determines at contract inception whether control of each performance obligation transfers to a customer over time or at a point in time. Arrangements where the performance obligations are satisfied over time are not limited to services arrangements. The assessment of whether control transfers over time or at a point in time is critical to the timing of revenue recognition.

Over time method (OT)

Sales are recognized over time if any of the following is met:

  • The customer simultaneously receives / consumes as the group performs.
  • The group creates/enhances an asset and the customer controls it during this process.
  • The created asset has no alternative use for the group and the group has an enforceable right to payment (including reasonable profit margin) for performance completed to date if the customer terminates the contract for convenience.

The over time method is based on the percentage of costs to date compared with the total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost method). In rare cases, other methods, such as a milestones method, may be used for a particular project, assuming that the stage of completion can be better estimated than by applying the cost-to-cost method. Work progress of sub-suppliers is considered to determine the stage of completion. If circumstances arise that may change the original estimates of sales, costs or extent of progress toward completion, estimates are revised. These revisions may result in increases or decreases in estimated sales or costs, and are reflected in income in the period in which the circumstances that give rise to the revision become known by management.

The income statement contains a share of sales, including an estimated share of profit. The balance sheet includes the corresponding contract assets if the assets exceed the advance payments from the customer of the project. When it appears probable that the total costs of an order will exceed the expected income, the total amount of expected loss is recognized immediately in the income statement.

Point in time method (PIT)

A performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time if none of the criteria for satisfying a performance obligation over time is met. Sales are recognized when (or as) the customer obtains control of that asset (depending on international commercial terms). The following points indicate that a customer has obtained control of an asset:

  • The entity has a present right to payment
  • The customer has legal title
  • The customer has physical possession
  • The customer has the significant risks and rewards of ownership
  • The customer has accepted the asset

For contracts applying the point in time method, the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership (depending on international commercial terms) typically depicts the transfer of control most appropriately.

Disaggregation of sales

In the segment information (note 3), sales are disaggregated by:

  • Divisions (group’s reportable segments)
  • Timing of sales recognition (sales recognition method: over time, point in time) and divisions
  • Market segments and divisions
  • Geographical regions and divisions

Payment terms

The group’s general terms and conditions of supply require payments within 30 days after the invoice date.

If the group’s general terms and conditions apply for a contract, the group is entitled to issue the invoices as follows: for one-third of the contract value within five days after effective date (date when the purchase order has been accepted by the supplier, or the date of the latest signing), for one-third after expiration of half of the delivery time, and for one-third within 45 days prior to delivery. Payments for prices calculated on a time basis are invoiced on a biweekly basis or after completion of the scope of supply, whichever occurs first.

Other payment terms may apply if otherwise defined in the customer contract, the purchase order, the respective change order or the quotation.

Variable considerations

If the consideration promised in a contract includes a variable amount (e.g., liquidated damages, early payment discount, volume discounts), the group estimates the amount of consideration to which the group will be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods or services to a customer. The amount of the variable consideration is estimated by using either of the following methods, depending on which method the group expects will better predict the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled: the expected value method or the most likely amount method. The method selected is applied consistently throughout the contract and to similar types of contracts when estimating the effect of uncertainty on the amount of variable consideration to which the group is entitled.

If the group fails to meet the delivery date and a purchase order expressly provides liquidated damages for such failure, the purchaser is entitled to demand that the group pay liquidated damages at the rate stated in the purchase order. The group’s obligation for estimated liquidated damages are recorded as a reduction in revenue.

Allocation of the transaction price

To allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone, selling-price basis, the group determines the stand-alone selling price at contract inception of the distinct good or service underlying each performance obligation in the contract and allocates the transaction price in proportion to those stand-alone selling prices. If the stand-alone selling price is not directly observable, then the group estimates the amount with the expected cost-plus-margin method.